World Health Organization (WHO) defined Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) as local or systemic infections, acquired through sexual contacts or objects used in such occasions. The incidence of STDs around the globe is unacceptably soaring in the 21st century.WHO notified that more than one million STDs are acquired every day which resulted in increases the rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
STDs infections can lead to long term health consequences and it also affects the quality of life as it is facilitating the sexual transmission of HIV. Syphilis increases HIV infection risk by three-fold or more.According to Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS, an increase in number of STDs is threatening the future progress towards the goal of ending AIDS epidemic by 2030.Segregation, migration, and healthcare provision are social determinants that profoundly affect the spread of STDs.
Race and ethnicity are two substantial elements which are also responsible for higher STDs rates than the rest of the population. According to the published manuscripts and available literature, prevalence of HIV/STDs among racial and ethnic minorities is 5.4 to 17.8 times higher in respect of Caucasian.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) surveillance also highlighted the significant difference inherent in ethnicity regarding STDs.
Vito Fiore with his research team conducted a survey among illegal migrants admitted to our dedicated outpatient clinic from July to September 2019. The manuscript has published in The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. Data was collected on the basis of sexual behaviour and physical examination in order to identify the prevalence of individuals with high-risk sexual patterns or STDs suspicion. Basing on CDC 2015 guidelines on STDs, anamnesis, and clinical features, screening for HIV/STDs was proposed.
The results of this survey exhibited that migrants have high-risk sexual behavior. Despite this, they have a low perception of HIV/STDs risk and healthcare needs. It is the need of the hour to pay particular attention in order to improve access to HIV/STDs services that provide screening and treatment.
Finally, yet most importantly, a right counseling approach is needed among this particular population, given the necessity to increase the perception of healthcare needs.
Migrants; STDs; physical examination; sexual behavior; HIV risk; healthcare needs.